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White Papers

Horizen invests in the continued R&D of blockchain technology.

Horizen strives to push technological boundaries and bring new products and services to those who need them most.

Horizen’s culture is research-driven, and we believe in the development of open source technology. Our R&D and Engineering teams are building an open, permissionless and multipurpose blockchain platform that will help make the world a better place.

Below is our original whitepaper along with our updated Application Platform paper and our project-specific contributions to the Distributed Ledger Technology industry.


The Original White Paper

Release date: May 2017
Horizen was founded as ZenCash, an end-to-end encrypted system with zero-knowledge technology over which communications, data, or value is securely and privately transmitted and stored. Horizen is an integration of revolutionary technologies that create a system over which innovation can accelerate by combining three functions that are traditionally done separately.

Horizen Application Platform:
A Multi-tiered Node System

Release date: April 2018
The Horizen Secure Node system is a unique compensated blockchain network with enhanced client-to-node and node-to-node encryption. The system was designed to rapidly and massively decentralize the blockchain network to provide unparalleled censorship resistance, net capacity and to lay the infrastructure for a high-performing privacy-oriented platform.

51% Attack Prevention:
A Solution to Modify Bitcoin’s Consensus

Release date: June 2018
The longest chain rule, or Satoshi Consensus, worked well in the relatively decentralized environment in which it was introduced in 2009. Mining technology has evolved over the years, thus making it financially feasible to launch 51% attacks on operational public blockchains networks. Horizen proposes a solution to modify the longest chain rule to make it financially infeasible to conduct such attacks while also allowing the network to dynamically adjust parameters.

Horizen Sidechain Model:
Decoupled Consensus Between Chains

Release date: Oct 2018
We propose a novel sidechain construction tailored to be compatible with the Horizen blockchain and designed for conducting secure and decentralized cross-chain transfers without requiring the mainchain nodes to track sidechains to verify them. The proposed scheme can also be adopted for other similar blockchain systems. We show that our cross-ledger transfer mechanism is secure under certain plausible assumptions.

R&D Partnership with Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK) and InfoPulse

The partnerships bring some of our research and development projects.

We’re working with IOHK and Infopulse to launch a protocol-level treasury system containing a public ledger where ZEN holders can vote to decide what proposals advance and a Block-DAG study to address the biggest issue in the blockchain industry: scaling.